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John Clifford Shaw Papers,
1933-1993

Extent and Forms of Material: 20.5 cubic feet: (65 boxes, 4 oversize folders)
Creator: John Clifford Shaw
Abstract: The John Clifford Shaw Papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, and diagrams documenting Shaw’s development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition there is biographical material documenting Shaw’s personal interests, family, and academic career.
Repository: Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. archivescenter@si.edu 202-633-3270
www.americanhistory.si.edu/archives
Collection Number: AC0580
Processing Note: Processed by Brian Keough, August 1997; supervised by Alison Oswald and Craig Orr, archivists.
Acknowledgement Statement: Our sincere thanks to Mr. Morton Bernstein, who kindly contributed to the editing of the administrative/biographical history.
© 2007 by the Smithsonian Institution. All rights reserved.

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Information for users of the collection

Conditions Governing Access: The collection is open for research use.
Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use: Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Preferred Citation: [Title and date of item], John Clifford Shaw Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, box number X, folder number XX, digital file number XXXXXXXX

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In-depth information about the collection

Administrative/biographical history
Scope and content
System of arrangement
Access points
Container listing

Administrative/biographical history

John Clifford Shaw (1922-1991) was born in Southern California. Shaw went to Fullerton High School, the same high school as Richard Nixon. Shaw’s English teacher was Nixon’s high school debate team coach. Shaw attended Fullerton Junior College from 1939 until February 1943. At the same time, he worked as a timekeeper at the Douglas Aircraft Company, where he was responsible for time-card calculations and reports. He served in the U.S. Navy for three years during World War II as an aircraft navigator in the 4th Emergency Rescue Squadron in Iwo Jima, Japan and as a navigation instructor. Shaw returned to California in 1947 and began working for the Beneficial Standard Life Insurance Company as an assistant to the actuary, compiling actuarial calculations of premium rates, reserve liabilities, and annual reports. Shaw and his wife Marian had four children: Doug (b. 1948), David (b. 1950), Donna (b. 1952), and John (b. 1962). By 1948, Shaw received his Bachelor’s degree in Mathematics from UCLA and in 1950 joined the newly formed RAND Corporation as a mathematician.

The RAND Corporation evolved during the years after World War II amidst the escalating Cold War. Project RAND was originally carried out under a contract with the Douglas Aircraft Company. RAND was incorporated in May 1948. RAND, a California nonprofit corporation, was one of the earliest Cold War “think tanks” that functioned as an interdisciplinary research and development facility; it received large sums of money from the Air Force and Atomic Energy Commission. Throughout the 1950s, other agencies such as the Department of Defense, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solicited scientific and foreign policy research from RAND. During Shaw’s tenure (1950-1971), money flowed into RAND and enabled many scientists and researchers, including Shaw and his colleagues in the Math and Numerical Analysis Department, to explore new avenues of discovery.

Shaw’s early work at RAND involved administrative matters, such as improving the processes of company management through automation of the computation and calculation techniques. This work included collaboration with Allen Newell on a radar simulator. In the mid-1950s, Newell and Shaw, and later Dr. Herbert Simon of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, formed the team known by the mid-1950s in the artificial intelligence field as NSS (Newell, Shaw, and Simon). The NSS team broke much ground in the field of artificial intelligence, programming languages, computer simulation of human problem solving, and man-machine communication. The radar simulator project involved studying how humans made decisions and whether one could design a program that could simulate human decision-making. While Newell and Simon concentrated on the human behavior aspect, Shaw focused on creating a programming language that would implement Simon and Newell’s concepts.

When Shaw began working in 1950, RAND was using six IBM 604 calculators to satisfy its scientific computing needs. In the early 1950s, RAND decided that it needed more computational power to accomplish projects for the Air Force and decided to build a Princeton-type computer named JOHNNIAC, after computer designer John von Neumann. The Princeton Class computer was considered state-of-the-art and was running at RAND by the first half of 1953. William Gunning was the project leader and Shaw worked on the selection of the instruction set and the design of the operator’s console. The JOHNNIAC became the basis for Shaw’s work on conversational time-sharing in the 1960s.

During the early 1950s, the dynamic of the innovative process was at work as Shaw and Newell in California, and Simon in Pittsburgh, were theorizing about human decision making, programming languages, and how computers could be manipulated to process information more productively. Air Force funding enabled Shaw and his colleague’s considerable intellectual and academic freedom to explore various hypotheses. In the mid-1950s, NSS began forming the theoretical basis for what they called Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.). C.I.P was the basis for the three main computer programs developed by NSS: the Chess Program, Logic Theorist (LT), and the General Problem Solver (GPS). By 1954, Shaw’s focus was on utilizing the power of the JOHNNIAC to develop a viable language that could simulate human behavior.

In early 1954, Newell left RAND for Pittsburgh to work with Simon; Shaw remained at RAND. The NSS team focused on creating programs that would enable a machine to exhibit intelligent behavior and “think” like a human. Chess and the Logic Theorist (LT) were the first programs that evolved from their work. Shaw dealt with the programming aspects, as Simon devoted his time to human thinking processes for chess, logic, and problem solving. Newell, who was still employed by RAND, was the middle man who worked both in programming and human behavior. He flew back to California every couple of months in 1954 and 1955 to confer with Shaw. Because of language limitations, the chess program was temporarily put aside as NSS decided to finish the LT. Known as IPL (Information Processing Language), the language developed by Shaw was one of the first list processing languages. Through experimentation with assemblers, compilers, and interpreters, Shaw developed list processing sequences that allowed the computer to arrange and store data more effectively. The effectiveness stemmed from links that formed the lists. From a storage point of view, lists were inefficient. Shaw translated Simon and Newell’s ideas into IPL. The IPL interpreter translated the IPL list processing statements into machine language and decision making into a machine language. Although not specifically programmed so, one of LT’s innovative characteristics was that it proved mathematical theorems from Whitehead and Russell’s Principia Mathematica, including a proof from Theorem 2.85 that the authors had missed. This was the most fascinating aspect of the program because LT was not programmed to find alternative proofs.

The NSS team’s work on the LT was completed by the end of 1955, and it perfected the program language in the winter and spring of 1956. LT was one of the earliest programs to investigate the use of heuristics in problem solving. It was capable of discovering and working out proofs for theorems in symbolic logic. In the summer of 1956, NSS presented the LT program to the artificial intelligence community at the Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference. Relatively unknown at the time, NSS excited the conference with the LT and the possibilities it opened in the study of programming languages and artificial intelligence.

The NSS team continued to focus on developing artificial intelligence. By 1957, NSS had constructed the General Problem Solver (GPS) program that attempted to demonstrate various human thinking processes in a variety of environments. At RAND and Carnegie Tech, studies were conducted that had human subjects think aloud in hopes of identifying human problem solving techniques and simulating them in GPS. NSS codified some human problem solving techniques such as means-end analysis, planning, and trial and error. Through the end of the 1950s, NSS produced improved versions of the IPL language and studied heuristic methods of decision making.

By 1960, when the JOHNNIAC was of insufficient computing power to support the level of computation needed, and IPL had been reprogrammed for the IBM 7090, List Processing (LISP), a high-level programming language had overtaken IPL as the language of choice for Artificial Intelligence research. Shaw’s interests had shifted towards attempting to simplify the use of computers for all types of computer users. Simon and Newell continued to study how they could simulate human cognitive processes on a computer. Until this point, a user would have to be adequately trained in programming or need assistance from a programmer to use a computer like JOHNNIAC. Shaw was interested in programming the JOHNNIAC so RAND staff could utilize the computer for small as well as large scientific computations. The JOHNNIAC was available for experimental research projects because RAND owned a newer IBM 7090 (acquired in 1960) which handled the bulk of RAND’s production computing load. Although JOHNNIAC was no longer state-of-the-art by this time, its major appeal was its reliability and capability for experimentation.

These factors were the impetus for the initiation of the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS) project in November 1960. JOSS was intended to be an easy to use, on-line, time sharing system. The JOSS research, conducted under the Information Processor Project, was formalized in 1959 as part of the RAND Computer Science Department and was heavily funded by the Air Force. The innovative character of JOSS was in the design of the list processing language, the ease of use for the non-programmer, its remote access capabilities, the establishment of an interactive environment between user and computer, and the capability for RAND scientists and engineers to use the computer without an intermediary programmer. It was hoped that the JOSS project would bridge the communication gap between man and machine. JOSS’s user language achieved this goal. It featured a small set of English verbs and algebraic symbols which did not need a programmer as intermediary between user and computer. During 1961-1962, Shaw selected the character set that would be used to write JOSS programs, its syntax, and grammar. The conversational environment included a Model B IBM Electric Typewriter. Tom Ellis and Mal Davis directed the hardware configurations and Ike Hehama, Allen Newell, and Keith Uncapher participated in the project discussions with Shaw.

The very limited JOSS experiments on the JOHNNIAC began in May 1963, with five consoles, one connected to the JOHNNIAC and four others located in the offices of various RAND staff. By June, a schedule of operations was in place and by January 1964, JOSS was fully implemented. The use of JOSS by RAND staff was higher than expected as users taught other users how to run the system. However, Shaw and the other designers worried that JOHNNIAC’s hardware placed limitations on speed and storage which might taint the evaluation of JOSS. In July 1964, a second version of JOSS was proposed on a more powerful computer. C.L. Baker was named project head, and Shaw focused on developing the programming language for JOSS II.

After accepting numerous bids to replace JOHNNIAC, a contract was signed with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) promising the installation of a PDP-6 computer and thirty consoles at RAND. The installation was completed by October 31, 1965. At the Fall Joint Computer Conference in Las Vegas in December 1965, the first demonstration of remote use of JOSS II was given. JOHNNIAC was retired on February 18, 1966, with Willis Ware delivering a eulogy and Shaw loading a final JOSS I program. By the end of 1966, JOSS II was available to users 24 hours a day, seven days a week on the new PDP-6/JOSS computer, which had thirty times the speed and five times the storage capacity as the JOHNNIAC version. In April 1967, the maintenance and improvement of JOSS II was transferred from the development group to a small staff under G.W. Armending. In 1971, at age 49, Shaw left the RAND Corporation.

In 1971, Shaw took a one-year appointment as a Research Associate in the Information Science Department at the California Institute of Technology. In 1972, he began working as a consultant which he continued for the rest of his professional career. Much of his work in the 1970s and 1980s consisted of formulating new ideas on operations research, video games, man-machine interfaces, interactive computer systems, time-sharing, information architecture design, and artificial intelligence. During the 1980s, Shaw also became more involved in church-related activities.

Shaw’s work on creating the Information Processing Language in the 1950s and the JOSS program in the 1960s were the two major contributions he made to the fields of programming and artificial intelligence. His IPL-I programming language is one of the earliest examples of list processing languages now in widespread use. The JOSS program was one of the first easy-to use, remotely accessible, interactive programs that allowed non-programmers to utilize the power of a computer


Scope and content

The John Clifford Shaw Papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memoranda, and diagrams documenting Shaw’s development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, there is biographical material documenting Shaw’s personal interests, family, and academic career.

The collection is arranged chronologically into five series. Series 1, Shaw’s Career at Rand, 1950-1971, documents his most significant work. The subseries are arranged by specific projects and illustrate his pioneering work on programming languages, interactive time-sharing systems, heuristic problem solving, logic programming, stored programs, and artificial intelligence. This work included his role in the development of the JOHNNIAC computer and programs such as the Logic Theorist (LT), General Problem Solver (GPS), and the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS).

The materials include technical reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, coding sequences, and system tests. In addition, there are reports documenting the collaborative nature of the NSS team’s work on human problem solving, computer simulation of human thinking, and complex information processing. The subject files in Series 1 document the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) role in the JOSS research and other work done by Shaw.

Series 2, Rand Environment, 1951-1986, is arranged into three subseries containing technical reports that document other computer related research being conducted at RAND during Shaw’s tenure. These materials are not directly related to his work, including reports documenting defense related research. The series contains memoranda and correspondence illustrating the internal workings and daily operations at RAND from 1950 to 1971 and various sets of annual reports, progress reports, and newsletters from 1960 to 1971. In addition, there are historical materials commemorating RAND anniversaries, profiles of the company, and indexes to RAND publications and abstracts.

Series 3, Computer Industry, 1947-1973, consists of printed matter that documents developments at other institutions and companies engaged in artificial intelligence and programming research. The printed matter includes reports, manuals, brochures, and reprints of articles about research by other institutions, companies, and individuals. Also, there are materials from trips, conferences and seminars attended by Shaw.

Series 4, Consulting Work, 1972-1990, comprises Shaw’s work after he left RAND in 1971. It consists of reports and reprints from companies and institutions for which Shaw worked or from those he saw as potential clients. Of particular interest are the research notes, on note cards and 8.5” x 11” paper that illuminate Shaw’s ideas and thoughts regarding artificial intelligence and programming languages during this period.

Series 5, Biographical Information, 1933-1993, consists of printed matter regarding Shaw’s life and accomplishments. It contains resumes, list of publications and lectures, salary history, and the outline for a book on JOSS. Material on Shaw’s personal life includes information about his family, personal correspondence with Herbert Simon, Allen Newell and his wife, Marian, Chuck Baker, Edward Feigenbaum, and correspondence from authors requesting information or comment on future publications. Additionally, there are reprints and clippings that reveal Shaw’s personal interests in political issues such as the Pentagon Papers, Watergate, the making of the hydrogen bomb, and Star Wars Defense Technology.


System of arrangement

Series 1: Shaw’s Career at Rand, 1950-1971
Subseries A, JOHNNIAC, 1950-1968
Subseries B, Logic Therorist [See also Complex Information Processing], 1956-1963
Subseries C, General Problem Solver (G.P.S.) and Heuristic Problem Solving, 1955-1967
Subseries D, Chess Program, 1954-1973
Subseries E, Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.), 1953-1972
Subseries F, Information Processing Languages (IPL), 1956-1977
Subseries G, JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS), 1959-1977
Subseries H, Subject Files, 1954-1971
Series 2: RAND Environment, 1948-1986
Subseries A, Related Papers and Reports (RM-Series), 1951-1972
Subseries B, Reports and Papers—General, 1949-1971
Subseries C, RAND Material, 1948-1988
Series 3: State of the Computer Industry, 1946-1973
Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1989
Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993


Access points

Subjects/Topical:
Programming languages (electronic computers) -- 1950-70
Iph (Computer Program Language)
GPS (General Problem Solver)
Problem Solving—Data processing
List processing (electronic computers)
Job Control Language (Computer program language)
Heuristic programming
Logic programming
Logic machines
Time-sharing computer systems
On-line data processing
Computational linguistics
Computer industry—1950-1980—United States
Mathematical models
Computer Industry—1950-1980—Soviet Union
Decision making—mathematical models
Computers—military applications
Computer programmers
Mathematicians
System analysts

Subjects/Names:
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
Association for Computing Machinery
Dartmouth College
Digital Equipment Corporation
IBM (International Business Machines)
Massachusetts General Hospital
RAND Corporation
UCRL (University of California Radiation Lab)

Form/Genre:
Correspondence—1950-2000
Diagrams
Memorandums—1950-1980
Notes—1950-1980
Technical reports—1950-1980


Container listing

Box Folder  
    SERIES 1: SHAW’S CAREER AT RAND, 1950-1971
    Subseries A: JOHNNIAC, 1950-1968
    Reports, 1955-1968
1 1 Programming Manual, July 1955
  2 Operators Manual, March 1956
  3 Floating-Point Interpretive System, August 1958
  4 Easy Fox, 1958-1961
  5 Assembler, 1962, 1964
  6 JOHNNIAC Manifesto, 1958
  7 JOHNNIAC Eulogy, 1966
  8 History of JOHNNIAC, 1968
59 1 Tentative List of JOHNNIAC orders, No date
  O/S Fldr. 1 JOHNNIAC Block Diagram, 1953
  O/S Fldr. 2 Logical Flow Diagram for JOHNNIAC Control, 1953
1 9 Memorandum and Notes, Console, 1952-1958 [See also box 53]
  10 Memorandum and Notes, Procedures for Operation, 1955-1960
  11 Memorandum and Notes, Printer, 1956-1957
  12 Memorandum and Notes, Programming Files (J-Files),1955-1959
2 1-3 Memorandum and Notes, Programming Files (J-Files),1955-1959
  4 Memorandum and Notes, JOHNNIAC Simplified Systems, 1955
  5 Memorandum and Notes, Magnetic Tape Storage, 1955
  6 Memorandum and Notes, 701 Assembly program, 1955
  7 Memorandum and Notes, 701 Library Programs, [1955?]
  8 Procedures Staff Memos, 1953-1954
  9 Operators Hours and Scheduling, 1953
    Subseries B: Logic Theorist [See also Complex Information Processing], 1956-1963
3 1-3 Reports, 1956-1958, 1963
  4-7 Notes, 1956-1957
    Subseries C: General Problem Solver (G.P.S.) and Heuristic Problem Solving, 1955-1967
4 1-9 Reports, 1955-1967
5 1-2 Rough Draft of Human Problem Solving, 1967
  3-5 Coding Experiments [Thinking Aloud], 1957-1961
  6 Programming Sequences, Printouts, [1956-1958?]
    Subseries D: Chess Program, 1954-1973
6 1-4 Reports, 1954-1964, 1973
  5-7 Memos, Notes and Correspondence, 1954
  8 Demonstrations, 1959-1960, 1966
  9 Chess Log, 1958
7 1-4 Programming Sequences Printouts, 1959-1960
  5 Chess Board, No date
    Subseries E: Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.) [Also contains material on Heuristic Problem Solving], 1953-1972
  6-8 Reports, 1953-1957
8   Reports, 1958
9 1-6 Reports, 1961-1972
  7-8 Notes, 1957-1961
57 1-2 Patent Files (IPL, RAND Tablet), 1959-1968
    Subseries F: Information Processing Languages (IPL), 1956-1977
10 1-8 Reports, 1957-1967
11 1-5 Notes/Memos, 1956-1960
  6-7 Teletype log of online conversations between Shaw and Newell, 1960
12 1-4 Programming Sequences, Printouts, 1956-1959
  5 Historical, 1971, 1977
    Subseries G: JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS), 1959-1977
  6-9 Reports, 1961-1965
13 1-7 Reports, 1966-1967
14 1-4 Reports, 1967-1970
  5 User Guides, 1967, 1970
  6 Manuals, 1964-1965, 1974-1975
15 1 JOSS Notebook (User Manual), August 1967
  2 JOSS: Console Design (Report), 1967
  3 JOSS Notes, No date
16 1-5 Memos and Correspondence-General, 1962-1970
  6 Memos and Correspondence-Air Force Contract, 1965-1970 (see Also Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA))
  7 Memos and Correspondence-IBM Proposal and Symposium, 1964-1965
  8 Memos and Correspondence-Time-sharing Systems, 1963-1964
  9 Memos and Correspondence-Japanese, visit from, 1967
  10 Memos and Correspondence-Last days of Joss, 1966
  11 Memos and Correspondence-Trademark/Copyright, 1967-1970
17 1 Memos and Correspondence-JOSS 360/Network
  2 Memos and Correspondence-Character Sets and Keyboards, 1969
  O/S Fldr. 3 JOSS Language Poster Precis, 1967
17 3-4 Research Notes and Memos-General, 1960-1964
  5 Research Notes and Memos-JOSS Log, 1962-1966
  6 Research Notes and Memos-H-Notes (Hardware), 1959-1970
  7 Research Notes and Memos-FJCC (Fall Joint Computer Conference), 1964
  8 Research Notes and Memos-Evaluation, 1964-1966
  9 Research Notes and Memos-JOSS II, 1964-1967
  10 Research Notes and Memos-Joss Notes/Functions, 1961-1963
18 1-5 Systems Tests and Programming Sequences, 1962-1970
  6 Video, 1964
  7 Photographs, 1964-1967
  8 Clippings, 1960-1970
  9 Historical, 1970-1977
    Subseries H, Subject Files, 1954-1971
19 1 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Memos-General, 1962-1969
  2-3 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-Notes, General, 1965-1971
  4 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-Artificial Intelligence, 1962-1971
  5 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-ISPL (Info. Science Program Language),1970-1971
  6 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-List Processing, 1966-1968
  7 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-Network, 1970-1971
  8 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-Program Organization, 1970-1971
20 1 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-Translator, 1966-1967
  2 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-User Language, 1965-1968
  3-4 Artificial Intelligence [Notes on control schemes, agents, language, judgment, representation, graphics], 1968-1970
  5 Bibliographies, 1960-1970
  6 CAL and BLISS (JOSS-like systems), 1966-1970
  7 CASAP (Computer Assisted Specification of Algorithmic Processes), 1968-1969
  8 Clippings (DOT and FAA), 1968,1969
  9 Demonstrations (Graphic Input and Stylus Tablet), 1963
  10 Giant Computers/Brains, 1960-1961
  11 Glossaries, 1954-1964
21 1 IC 9000 and ISPL Notes, 1970
  2 JCL (Job Control Language), 1969
  3-7 Massachusetts General Hospital Computer Project (MUMPS), 1964-1979
22 1 Massachusetts General Hospital Computer Project (MUMPS), 1964-1979
  2-3 Mathematical Model/NIH, 1969-1970
  4 Microprogramming, 1956, 1960
  5 New York Fire Department and New York Police Department, 1968-1969
  6 Program Compatibility, 1967-1968
  7 Project for the Advancement of Coding Techniques (PACT), 1954-1959
  8 Security Project, 1971
  9 Timesharing, 1960s
23 1-3 University of California Radiation Laboratory (UCRL), 1954-1955
  O/S Fldr. 4 University of California Radiation Laboratory (UCRL), 1954-1955
23 4 Critical Path Method, 1969
    SERIES 2: RAND ENVIRONMENT, 1948-1986
    Subseries A, Related Papers and Reports (RM-Series), 1951-1972
24 1 Mathematical Tables for Desk Calculators, 1951
  2 Monte Carlo Program, 1954
  3 Digital Computing, 1954
  4 Machine Translation, 1957-1958
  5 Soviet Cybernetics, 1961
  6 Information Systems, 1962
  7 Computational Algorithms, 1962
25 1 Programming Languages, 1962
  2 Military Applications, 1962
  3 Programming Applications, 1962-1963
  4 Computer Simulation, 1963
  5 Data Systems, 1962
  6 Military Application, 1963
26 1 Military Applications, 1962-1963
  2 Soviet Cybernetics, 1963
  3 Assembly Systems, 1963
  4-5 Military Applications, 1963-1964
  6 List Processing, 1963
  7 Computational Linguistics, 1964, 1966
  8 Character Recognition, 1964
27 1 Complex Information Processing, 1964
  2 Graphical Communication, 1964-1965
  3 Automated Space Checkout Systems, 1964-1965
  4 Military Applications, 1965
  5 Computational Linguistics, 1965-1966
  6 Programming Languages, 1965
28 1 Software Research, 1965
  2 Man-Machine Communications, 1964, 1966
  3 Scientific Application of Computers, 1964, 1966
  4 Data Retrieval and Storage, 1965
  5 Computational Linguistics, 1966
  6 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1966, 1970
  7 Character Recognition, 1964, 1966
  8 Military Applications, 1965, 1967
  9 Data Retrieval and Storage, 1966-1967
29 1 Soviet Cybernetics, 1967
  2 Man-Machine Communications, 1968
  3 ARPA, 1969-1970
  4 Air Force Space Mission, 1970-1980
    Subseries B, Reports and Papers, General, 1949-1971
  5-6 IBM Setups, 1949-1950
  7 Rational Approaches in High-Speed Computing, 1949
  8 Digital Computing Report, 1953
  9 Assembler, 1956-1958
30 1-2 Heuristic Problem Solving and Programming, 1958-1959
  3 Control and Support Systems, Air Force, 1959-1960
  4 Intelligent Machines, 1960-1961
  5 Programming Languages, 1961
  6 R.V. Jones, Lecture by, 1962
  7 Games on a Computer, 1965
  8 Analysis for Military Decisions, 1966
31 1 Future of Computers, 1966-1967
  2 Soviet Cybernetics, 1967-1968
  3 Data Automation, 1967-1968
  4 Systems Analysis and Policy Planning: Applications in Defense, 1968
  5 Programming Languages, 1968-1969
  6 Computing Power and Dynamics, 1967, 1969
  7 Computer Research at RAND, 1970
  8 Soviet Cybernetics, 1968-1971
  9 R.V. Jones, 1971
    Subseries C, RAND Material, 1948-1988
32 1-6 Internal RAND Memos, 1948-1971
33 1 Index of Publications, 1962
  2 Supplement to Index, 1963
  3 Index, 1968-1974
  4 Cumulative Index, 1963-1974
  5 Index, 1978-1980
34 1-5 Correspondence, 1961-1968
  6-7 Annual Reports, 1965-1969
35 1-4 Historical, 1951-1988
  5 40th Anniversary History, 1988
59 2 RAND Profile in Time Magazine, 1959
36 1 Grant Applications, 1971
  2-4 Newsletters, 1956-1970
57 3 Newsletters, RAND Management, 1970-1971
36 5-6 Progress Reports, 1960-1961, 1966-1968
37 1 Staff Directories, 1971-1972
  2 Clippings, No date
57 4 Ephemera-RAND Envelopes, No date
    SERIES 3: STATE OF THE INDUSTRY, 1946-1973
38 1-2 Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 1953, 1965-1974
59 4 Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Special Publication, 1971
38 3 Burroughs, 1962, 1966, 1979
  4-5 California Institute of Technology, 1953, 1963-1971
39 1-2 Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1966-1982
  3 Dartmouth College, 1955, 1959-1965
  4 Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), 1963-1970
  5 IBM, 1948-1961
40 1-2 IBM, 1964-1972
  3-5 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), 1953-1966
41 1-2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), 1960-1969
  3-4 University of Pennsylvania, 1946
  5 Stanford Artificial Intelligence Project, 1963-1968
42 1-3 Stanford Artificial Intelligence Project, 1968-1973
  4-8 System Development Corporation (SDC), 1960-1970
43 1-3 System Development Corporation (SDC), 1965-1971
  4-5 Miscellaneous, 1955-1960
44 1-2 Miscellaneous, 1965-1973
  3-6 Reprints, 1946-1961
45 1-5 Reprints, 1962-1970
46 1-5 Reprints, 1970-1975
47 1-3 Trips and Seminars, 1953-1972
59 2 Time-sharing Supplement from Computer World, March 25, 1970
    SERIES 4: CONSULTING WORK, 1972-1989
48 1 Abacus Programming Corporation, 1977-1979
  2-3 American Airlines, 1972
  4-7 Bally, 1975-1982
49 1-2 California Institute of Technology (Jet Propulsion Lab), 1972-1973
  3 CLINFO, 1973
  4-6 Information Automation, 1973-1974
  7 Information Science Institute (ISI), 1972-1974
50 1-4 Information Science Institute (ISI), 1972-1974
  5 PeCos - Personal Computers, 1979
  6 Personal Computing, 1977-1980
  7 PROMISE, 1973-1975
51 1 RAND, 1972-1973
  2-3 Clippings (Artificial intelligence, code-breaking, calculators) 1980s
  4-6 Notes, 1971-1976
52 1-5 Notes, 1977-1989
53   Note Cards, 1976-1988
54   Note Cards, 1976-1988
    SERIES 5: BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, 1933-1993
55 1 Resumes, salary history, benefits, list of publications and lectures, 1970s
  2 Personal log, 1969
  3 Job search, late 1970s, 1980s
  4 Actuarial files, 1947-1950
  5 Herbert Simon and Allen Newell, biographical, 1958-1993
  6 History of JOSS, outline for possible book, 1978
  7 Transcripts, applications, commencement program for Fullerton Junior College and UCLA, late 1940s
  8 Personal and Family clippings about children's achievements, driver's license, holiday cards from family, Boy Scout material, 1945-1988
59 3 California License plate titled JOSS I, 1977
55 9-10 Personal Correspondence, 1960s-1980s [Mostly from C.L. and Alice Baker, Herbert and Dorothy Simon, Ed and Nancy Feigenbaum, Allen Newell's wife, Paul Armer]
56 1-2 Requests for comments re: various publications from Jean Sammett, Shirley Marks, H. Simon, Pamela McCorduck, Noah Prywes, Harry Gray, and George Miller, 1959-1990
  3 Church materials, 1965; 1984
  4-6 Reprints/Notes/Clippings Areas of interest to Shaw [professional and political, including RAND, Pentagon Papers, Vietnam, making of the H-Bomb, artificial intelligence, and notes titled "It's a Small World that correlates people he knew and their involvement in political scandals], 1958-1983
  7 Newsletter-Charles Babbage Institute, 1980-1990
58 1 Simon, Herbert, and James G. March. Organizations. New York: Wiley, 1958. First edition, signed by Simon.
  2 Simon, Herbert. The New Science of Management Decision. New York: Harper, 1960. First edition, signed by Simon.
  3 Simon, Herbert. The Shape of Automation for Men and Management. New York: Harper and Row, 1965. First edition, signed by Simon.
  4 McCorduck, Pamela. Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1979.

 

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