Inventors Before 1960
was the first to observe the phenomenon of piezoelectricity, a discovery that would yield a precision time standard.
Walter Guyton Cady:
developed the first quartz crystal resonator.
George Washington Pierce:
developed several designs for quartz oscillator circuits.
Friedrich Reinitzer and Otto Lehmann:
discovered liquid crystals, materials that would eventually be used for watch time displays.
developed the first quartz clock.
Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce:
independently invented the integrated circuit, the microelectronics
package that controls the quartz wristwatch.
invented the Accutron, the first tuning fork watch.
Inventors after 1960