What's Inside
Watch Wars
Cool Watches

Selected Sources / Picture Credits

Aked, Charles K. Electrifying Time. New House: The Antiquarian Horological Society, 1976.

Bottom, Virgil E. "A History of the Quartz Crystal Industry in the USA," 1981 Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 3-12. (Go to for a complete transcript).

Braun, Ernest and MacDonald, Stuart. Revolution in Miniature: The History and Impact of Semiconductor Electronics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Business Trends Analysts, Inc. The Market for Watches and Clocks: Past Performance, Current Trends, and Strategies for the Future, 1988.

Cady, Walter Guyton. Piezoelectricity: An Introduction to the Theory and Applications of Electromechanical Phenomena in Crystals. New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 1946.

Cutmore, M. Watches, 1850-1980. London: David & Charles, 1989.

Doensen, Pieter. Watch: History of the Modern Wristwatch. Belgium: Snoeck-Ducaju & Zoon, 1994.

Forrer, Max P. "A Flexure Mode Quartz for an Electronic Wrist Watch. With a description of the prototypes Beta 1 and Beta 2," Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Frequency Symposium, Atlantic City, May 1969, pp. 157-162.

______. "Survey of Circuitry for the Wristwatches," Proceedings of the IEEE, Sept. 1972, pp. 1047-54.

Forrer, Max, et al. L'aventure de la montre à quartz: mutation technologique initiée par le Centre Electronique Horloger, Neuchâtel. Neuchâtel: Published by the authors, 2002.

Frei, A.H "Quartzresonatoren für elektronische Armbanduhren," Centre Electronique Horloger unpublished technical report No. 85, 3 February 1967.

Fried, Henry. Repairing Quartz Watches: Including a Basic Course in Electricity and Electronic Horology. Cincinnati: American Watchmakers Institute Press, 1988.

Gilder, George. Microcosm: The Quantum Revolution in Economics and Technology. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.

Gillispie, Charles, ed. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. American Council of Learned Societies, 1971.

"The Great Digital Watch Shake-out," Business Week. 2 May 1977: 798-80.

Hollister, Dean, ed. American Men and Women of Science. New York: R.R. Bowker Division of Reed Publishing, 1989.

Hyltin, Tom. The Digital Electronic Watch. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1978.

Jouannic, Jean. La Montre ˆ Quartz. Besanon, France: C TRE, n.d.

Kahlert, Helmut, and MŸhe, Richard, and Brunner, Gisbert. Wristwatches: History of a Century's Development. West Chester, Pa.: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1986.

Landes, David. Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge, MA.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1983.

Lavet, Marius. "Les horloges de communtation ˆ mouvements mŽcaniques remontŽs ou non Žlectriquement," Editions des Annales Franaises de chronomŽtrie, 1949.

Lubar, Steven. Info Culture: The Smithsonian Book of Information Age Inventions. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993.

Matz, Ben. "The History and Development of the Quartz Watch, Parts 1&2. Horoglogical Times 13 (Nov. & Dec. 1989).

Mermod, Jacques, et al. "Montres Electriques et Electroniques," FŽdŽration des Ecoles Techniques de Suisse, Neuch‰tel, Oct. 1977.

Momosaki, Eishi and Shigeru Kogure. "The Application of Piezoelectricity to Watches," Ferroelectrics, 1982, vol. 40, pp.203-216.

"Pioneers: Walter Guyton Cady and George Washington Pierce, Crystal-controlled Oscillator," Electronics World & Wireless World, November 1990.

Queisser, Hans. The Conquest of the Microchip. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Quinn, Susan. Marie Curie: A Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.

Reid, T.R. The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and Launched a Revolution. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984.

Rondeau, RenŽ. The Watch of the Future: The Story of the Hamilton Electric Watch. 2nd ed.. Corte Madera, CA: Published by the author, 1992.

Sauers, Don. Time for America: Hamilton Watch, 1892-1992. Lititz, Pa.: Sutter House, 1992.

Schmidlin, Franz. "Elektrische und Elektronische Armbanduhren," Band I. Bibliothek des Schweizer Uhren und Schmuck Journal, Scriptar S.A. Lausanne (Schweiz), 1970.

"Seiko: Highlights of over 100 years of Leadership in Watchmaking," Horological Journal, Oct. 1994, pp. 556-558.

Staudte, Juergen. "Subminiature Quartz Tuning Fork Resonator," 1973 Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 50-54.

"Texas Instruments Shows U.S. Business How to Survive in the 1980's," Business Week. 18 September 1978: 66-92.

Topham, W.R. "Warren Marrison - Pioneer of the Quartz Revolution," NAWCC Bulletin, April 1989, pp. 126-134.

"The $20 Digital Watch Arrives a Year Early," Business Week. 26 January 1977: 27-28.

Travers, Bridget, ed. World of Invention. Detroit: Gale Research, 1994.

Vig, John R. Introduction to Quartz Frequency Standards. Research and Development Technical Report, CECOM-TR-97-3. U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command Research, Development and Engineering Center. Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, June 1997. (Go to

Vig, John R. Quartz Crystal Resonators and Oscillators for Frequency Control and Timing Applications: A Tutorial. AD-A328861. U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM). Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, September 1998.

Vigoureux, P. and C.F. Booth. Quartz Vibrators and their Applications. London: His Majesty's Stationary Office, 1950.

Weaver, J.D.. Electrical & Electronic Clocks & Watches. London: Butterworth & Co., 1982.

Willisen, Friedrich K. von. "The Quartz Watch: its life and times," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 16, June 1979, pp. 18-23.

Zanoni, Louis. "Repairing the LCD Watch," Horological Times. November 1977: 10-14.

______. The Digital Watch Repair Manual: A complete manual of the repair of LED and LCD watches. New Jersey: Zantech, Inc., 1980.

______. The Quartz Watch Repair Manual: A comprehensive text on troubleshooting and repairing Quartz Analog and Digital Watches, Vol. II. New Jersey: Zantech, Inc., 1983.

Picture Credits

Pierre Curie: Marie Sklodoswska-Curie Museum, Warsaw, Poland; Friedrich Reinitzer: Firmenarchiv Merck; Otto Lehmann: Deutsches Museum;Warren Marrison: Queen's University Archives, Kingston, Ontario; Marrison Quartz Clock: property of AT&T Archives, reprinted with Permission of AT&T; Robert Noyce: Courtesy of Intel Corporation; John Bergey and Pulsar breadboard: Courtesy of John M. Bergey; Nick Holonyak, Jr. and laser: Nick Holonyak, Jr.; Jack Kilby and T.I. 501 LED watch: reprinted by permission of Texas Instruments; James Fergason and Gruen/ILIXCO LCD watch: James Fergason; George Heilmeier: Thomson Consumer Electronics Inc.; Hamilton Battery Pioneers: Gift of Thomas Morgan; Ventura ad and Hamilton Battery ad: Gift of RenŽ Rondeau; Integrated circuit, Beta 21 and Beta 21 module: Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA; Seiko Astron: Science and Society Picture Library, Science Museum, London; Quartz crystal: Reprinted with Permission of Citizen Watch Co.; Ironman: Timex Corporation; Accutron Tuning Fork: Courtesy of Maggie Dennis; Optel Breadboard, Optel LCD driver and watch display module, Zanoni and Goldmacher at Optel: Gift of Nunzio Luce and Louis A. Zanoni, Division of History of Technology files, Smithsonian Institution; Nunzio Luce: Courtesy of Nunzio Luce; Accutron Spaceview D: Division of the History of Technology files, Smithsonian Institution.

The following photos by Eric Long for National Museum of American History: Pulsar watch, Seiko TV watch, Junghans and Citizen radio-controlled watches, Pulsar calculator watch, Swatches, Nightwatch. For information on ordering photos from the National Museum of American History, please visit the Smithsonian's Office of Photographic Services website at

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