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Inventor Elmer Gates
Elmer Gates Papers,
1894 -1988 (bulk 1894-1910)

Extent and Forms of Material: 1.5 cubic feet, including photographs and books (5 boxes)
Creator: Elmer Gates
Abstract: Papers document the life of Elmer Gates (1859-1923), an independent American inventor and psychologist. Gates developed ideas related to experimental psychology and inventions in fields such as metallurgy, electricity, microscopy, X-rays, and pedagogy. Papers include correspondence, photographs, patents, articles and clippings, writings, and estate documents.
Repository: Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; archivescenter@si.edu; 202-633-3270; www.americanhistory.si.edu/archives
Collection Number: AC1123
Processing Note: Processed by Christopher Ruggiero (intern), June 2008; supervised by Alison Oswald, archivist.
© 2008 by the Smithsonian Institution. All rights reserved.

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Information for users of the collection

Conditions Governing Access: The collection is open for research use.
Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use: Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Preferred Citation: [Title and date of item], Elmer Gates Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, box number X, folder number XX, digital file number XXXXXXXX

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In-depth information about the collection

Administrative/biographical history
Scope and content
System of arrangement
Acquisition information
Existence and Location of Copies and Originals
Access points
Container listing

Administrative/biographical history

Elmer Gates (1859-1923) was an experimental psychologist and inventor active at the turn of the twentieth century. Having worked independently from a personal laboratory, Gates remains a largely obscure figure in the history of science. In his day, however, Gates was known for his original ideas linked to experimental psychology, as well as his numerous and eclectic inventions for which he received more than forty patents. A sampling of Gates’s inventions and innovations include a foam fire-extinguisher, an improved electric iron, methods for magnetic separation, and educational toys. In the field of psychology, Gates promoted a concept that he termed psychurgy, or the “art of more efficiently using the mind.”1

Elmer Gates was born near Dayton, Ohio, in 1859, to Jacob and Phebe Gates. At an early age, Elmer displayed a marked curiosity for the sciences. While in school, he was also taught by private tutors and his parents (his father was a teacher). By the late 1870s, Elmer had begun to develop ideas about experimental psychology. He believed that scientific experiments should be applied to the processes of the mind. The purpose of “psychurgy” would be to use the mind more effectively and efficiently. By training the mind through intense introspection and concentration and by attempting to observe corresponding physiological phenomena in the brain, Gates sought to demonstrate that the mind is in effect the body, and vice-versa. The ultimate aim—philosophical and moral—was to harness the mind’s potential in order to advance new ideas and to improve emotional well-being and personal character.

By 1892, Elmer Gates had secured financial support from wealthy individuals to conduct his research and scientific experiments on mind-using. It was also in this year that Elmer met his future wife, Phebe Edson, from Washington, D.C. In 1894, Elmer married Phebe and they moved to Germantown, Pennsylvania, where Gates maintained a personal laboratory for research and experimentation. By 1896, Elmer, Phebe, and their four children, Roger, Elmer, Donald, and Phebe, moved to Chevy Chase, Maryland, where, with financial backing, he established one of the most extensive personal laboratories in the nation. At the Chevy Chase laboratory, Gates conducted some of his most notable inventive work, including a method for simultaneously purifying, cooling and regulating moisture in the air, various patents for magnetic, diamagnetic, and electrostatic separation, the development of educational toys, and a fire-extinguishing device. From 1896 to 1908, Gates’s scientific projects and ideas often appeared in newspapers and journals, in which he was often referred to as “Professor Gates.” During this time, he delivered lectures and published some writings. By 1908, financial problems related to personal debt caused Gates to vacate the Chevy Chase laboratory. This marked the end of an era, as Gates’s experiments and projects mostly came to an end. In December 1923, Elmer Gates suffered a stroke and died. He is buried in Glenwood Cemetery in Washington, D.C.

The story of Elmer Gates is one of a fiercely independent American scientist at the turn of the twentieth century, whose ideas and projects were primarily concerned with psychology. He was not affiliated with any organizations, associations, institutions or universities. This, in part, explains his relative obscurity. Elmer Gates’s stream of experimental psychology sought to unite scientific and philosophical concepts. Sometimes, his work was misconstrued by the press, such as the time when he had to deny reports that he had witnessed the passing of a soul from a rat.  Gates’s central idea of psychurgy finds no explicit recognition in the field of modern psychology. Perhaps, the experimental psychology of Gates has never found a home within science because his aim was beyond science: the art of using the mind. In many ways, Gates was a man ahead of his time, a philosopher who, by insisting that the mind and body are intimately linked and, that emotions and thoughts have corresponding physiological processes, preceded modern neuroscience.

1 Gates, Elmer. “Can Will Power Be Trained?” Success (March 1900): 93.


Scope and content

The Elmer Gates Papers contain documents about Gates’s scientific pursuits and his personal life. Included are six series: Personal Papers (1879, 1922, 1981-1988), Correspondence (1894-1924, 1970s), Photographs (1890s-1910), Patents (1896-1928), Articles and Clippings (1894-1910, 1923, undated), and Writings, 1893-1916, 1971, undated. The majority of papers date from Elmer Gates’s most active period, 1894-1910. The papers are arranged into six series.

Series 1, Personal Papers, 1879, 1922, 1981-1988

The Personal Papers series contains documents related to Elmer Gates’s estate and the estate of Elmer Gates’s son, Donald Gates. Included are the Will and Testament of Elmer Gates and of his son and primary inheritor, Donald Gates. Donald Gates’s Will and Testament appoints his niece, Mrs. (Penny) Seymour Gardner, to inherit much of his father’s documents. This series also includes Donald Gates’s proposal letters to publishers in the early 1980s – and the subsequent rejection letters – underscoring Donald’s efforts to publish a biography he wrote about his father, Elmer Gates and the Art of Mind-Using. (He ultimately published the biography himself; it is included in Series 6, Writings.) Lastly, this series includes insightful transcripts from a South Carolina court ruling declaring “null and void” Donald Gates’s wish to establish a trust for the writings of Elmer Gates. The ruling reads as a judgment on the relevance and scientific merit of Elmer Gates’s work.

Series 2, Correspondence, 1894-1924, 1970s

This series contains letters from Elmer Gates, 1894; from Phebe Edson Gates, 1894, 1895; from Mary and Milan Edson, 1894, 1895; from Mary Penelope Gardner and Donald Edson Gates, 1970; from Anne Pryor Gardocki, 1970s; and miscellaneous. Phebe Edson Gates was Elmer’s wife, and Mary and Milan Edson were Gates’s parents-in-law. Donald Esdon Gates was the son of Elmer, and Mary Penelope Gardner was the niece of Donald Edson Gates.

One letter from Phebe Gates to her parents contains many pasted photographs of Elmer, Phebe, and the Chevy Chase laboratory. Six brief letters from notable people include one from the writer, Theodore Dreiser, and another from the electrical inventor, Nikola Tesla. Of note is the unaddressed letter originally authored by Anne Pryor Gardocki, Elmer Gates, Jr., fourth wife from 1944 to 1950. The purpose of this document is to tell Elmer Gates’s (senior) life story as Anne Pryor Gardocki heard it from Elmer Gates, Jr. It is eight pages and includes colorful personal details, especially about Gates, Sr. and wife, Phebe. The last subseries, Miscellaneous, contains just one letter dated 1907, addressed to Elmer from the Los Angeles Public Library requesting his autograph to include in an Autograph Archive of “Those Who Count.”

Series 3, Photographs, 1890s-1910

Series 3 contains personal photographs and laboratory photographs in Germantown and Chevy Chase and Gates’s various inventions and apparatuses. The personal photographs include approximately fifty photos, with several portraits of Elmer, his wife Phebe, their children, and group photos. The Germantown laboratory photographs consist of Elmer Gates’s laboratory and various apparatuses in Germantown, outside of Philadelphia. The Chevy Chase photographs include interior and exterior shots, and various apparatuses. The Inventions related photographs include three blueprints of various inventions and machines of Gates’s creation.

Series 4, Patents, 1896-1928

The Patents series is divided into three subseries, Subseries 1, United States Patents (issued), 1896-1928; Subseries 2, United States patent applications, 1896; and Subseries 3, British Patent, 1901. This series is organized chronologically according to the year the patent was issued.

Gates received eight patents in 1896, all pertaining to looms. In 1899, there are two patents for simultaneously purifying, cooling and regulating moisture in the air. For 1900, there are thirteen patents for magnetic, diamagnetic, and electrostatic separation and one for an apparatus for separating gold from magnetic sands, a feat that was publicized in newspapers. From 1903, there are eighteen patents, mostly related to alloys and magnetic separation. Also in 1903, there is the patent for one of Gates’s educational toys, a plate or board with holes through which blocks of various shapes could be matched to their corresponding shapes. In 1904, there is one patent for a fire-extinguishing device. For 1905, there is one patent for agglomerating magnetic ore. There is one patent for 1912 for purifying liquids. In 1925, there is one patent for complete combustion. Issued posthumously in 1927, there is one patent for a heat-regulated flatiron. In 1928, there is one patent issued posthumously for a method of combustion under pressure. Lastly, there is a British patent from 1901 for a method for separation of magnetic and diagmagnetic materials.

Series 5, Articles and Clippings, 1894-1910, 1923, undated

The Articles and Clippings series is comprised of newspaper, journal, and reference articles about Elmer Gates. These include various clippings about the scientific projects of Elmer Gates. Of note is the National Cyclopedia of American Biography entry about Elmer Gates. There is an obituary for Elmer Gates which includes a photograph of Elmer Gates and the Gates Laboratory and an eleven-page article by Theodore Dreiser titled, “The Training of the Senses,” which describes the apparatus and methodology for Elmer Gates’s sensory discrimination experiments on human subjects. Finally, this series contains five clippings, such as dictionary entries for Edison’s phonograph.

The newspaper and journal articles are arranged chronologically. There are also miscellaneous reference items, such as dictionary entry clippings.

Series 6, Writings, 1893-1916, 1971, undated

Series 6 is comprised of original writings by Elmer Gates and is divided into seven subseries: Subseries 1, Articles by Elmer Gates; Subseries 2, Notes, 1911; Subseries 3, Diary, 1911; Subseries 4, The Concept of Omnicosm, (notes), 1893; Subseries 5, “Originality and Invention Applied to Livelihood and Business,” published 1981; Suberies 6, Periodicals, 1896, 1903; and Subseries 7, Books, 1905-1916, 1971, undated.

Subseries 1 contains articles by Gates that appeared in various journals. An 1897 speech given at the National Congress of Mothers in Washington, D.C., addresses the “Art of Rearing Children.” Another article, “Psychology, Psychurgy, and the Kindergarten,” addresses child development and education and the possibilities of applying psychurgy. Gates’s original typewritten article, “Instruments for Developing Muscular Skill,” written in 1900, includes five photographs of various instruments. In an article from 1906 in the Annals of Psychical Science, Elmer Gates offers a clarification in response to sensational claims in newspapers that he had observed the passing of a soul in a rat. Lastly, there is an article authored by Elmer Gates in 1913 and later adapted and typewritten by his son in 1974 about the concept of pyschurgy.

Subseries 2, Notes, 1911, contains about seven pages of handwritten notes by Elmer Gates for what is probably a rough draft for a future work. One of the pages is dated 1908. 

Subseries 3, Diary, 1911, contains eleven handwritten pages by Elmer Gates. The tone of this diary entry is quite introspective. Here, Gates, while still determined to continue various projects, expresses doubts, concern about his reputation, and financial worries.

Subseries 4, is devoted to “The Concept of Omnicosm,” (notes), 1893, a bound typewritten manuscript of 624 pages dictated by Elmer Gates. This subseries contains typed and handwritten notes about the concept.

Subseries 5, “Originality and Invention Applied to Livelihood and Business,” is a 171-page book by Elmer Gates, published by his son, Donald Gates. In this article, Elmer Gates attempts to explain the process of arriving at original thought.

Subseries 6, Periodicals, 1896, 1903, contains original issues of the journal, Metaphysical Magazine from July-September, 1896 and the February 1903 issue of National Magazine. Metaphysical Magazine features Elmer Gates’s article, “The Art of Mind Using.” Metaphysical Magazine had offices in New York, London, and Paris and described itself as “devoted to a scientific examination of the laws of being.” In National Magazine, there is an article by Elmer Gates entitled, “Science, The First World-Movement.”

Subseries 7, Books, 1905-1916, 1971, undated, contains books and articles written by Elmer Gates, and books mentioning Elmer Gates.


System of arrangement

Series 1: Personal Papers, 1879, 1922, 1981-1988
Series 2: Correspondence, 1894-1924, 1970s
Series 3: Photographs, 1890s-1910
Series 4: Patents, 1896-1928
Subseries 1, United States Patents (issued), 1896-1928
Subseries 2, United States Patent Applications, 1896
Subseries 3,  British Patent, 1901
Series 5: Articles and Clippings, 1894-1910, 1923, undated
Series 6:Writings, 1893-1916, 1971, undated
Subseries 1, Articles by Elmer Gates, 1895-1906, undated
Subseries 2, Notes, 1911
Subseries 3, Diary, 1911
Subseries 4, The Concept of Omnicosm (notes), 1893
Subseries 5, “Originality and Invention Applied to Livelihood and Business,” 1981
Subseries 6, Periodicals, 1896, 1903
Subseries 7, Books, 1905-1916, 1971, undated

Acquisition information

This collection was donated by Mary P. Gardner and C. Lee Humphries in 2008.


Existence and Location of Copies and Originals

Digital images of all materials in the Elmer Gates Papers are available at: www.elmergates.com and on CD-ROM; please inquire.


Access points

Subject/Topical:
Inventions
Inventors
Psychologists
Psychology

Subject/Name:
Dreiser, Theodore
Gates, Elmer
Tesla, Nikola

Form/Genre:
Articles
Correspondence—19th-20th century
Diaries—20th century
Patents
Personal papers—19th century
Personal papers—20th century
Photographs—1890-1900
Photographs—1900-1910
Writings


Container listing

Box Folder  
1 1 SERIES 1, PERSONAL PAPERS, 1879, 1922, 1981-1988
    SERIES 2, CORRESPONDENCE, 1894-1924, 1970S
  2 From Elmer Gates, 1894
  3 From Phebe Edson Gates, 1894, 1895
  4 From Mary and Milan Edson, 1894, 1895
  5 From Notable People 1901-1924
  6 May Penelope Gardner and Donald Edson Gates, 1970
  7 From Anne Pryor Gardocki, 1970s
  8 Miscellaneous, 1907
    SERIES 3, PHOTOGRAPHS, 1890S-1910
  9 Personal, 1890s-1910
  10 Germantown, Pennsylvania Laboratory, 1894-1896
  11 Chevy Chase, Maryland Lab, 1896-1908
  12 Chevy Chase, Maryland, Laboratory, 1896-1908
  13 Inventions, undated
    SERIES 4, PATENTS, 1896-1928
    Subseries 1, United States (issued), 1896-
2 1 Gates, Elmer. 1896. Electrically operated shedding mechanism for looms. U.S. Patent 565,446, filed August 5, 1895, issued August 11, 1896.
    Gates, Elmer. 1896. Electrically operated jacquard mechanism for looms. U.S. Patent 565,447, filed August 5, 1895, issued August 11, 1896.
    Gates, Elmer. 1896. Electrically operated reed for looms. U.S. Patent 565,448 filed August 5, 1895, and issued August 11, 1896.
    Gates, Elmer. 1896. Magnetic shuttle motion for looms. U.S. Patent 565,449, filed August 5, 1895, issued August 11, 1896.
    Gates, Elmer. 1896. Department of Agriculture Patent Branch 54240, filed [?], issued November 10, 1896.
  2 Gates, Elmer. 1899. Process of simultaneously cooling air and purifying and regulating its moisture and apparatus thereof. U.S. Patent 636,255, filed July 31, 1897, issued November 7, 1899
    Gates, Elmer. 1899. Apparatus for simultaneously purifying cooling, and regulating moisture of air. U.S. Patent 636,256, filed June 29, 1898, and issued November 7, 1899.
  3 Gates, Elmer. 1900. Diamagnetic separation. U.S. Patent 653,256, filed September 26, 1899, issued July 10, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Electrostatic separation. U.S. Patent 653,343, filed December 2, 1899, issued July 10, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Diamagnetic separation. U.S. Patent 653, 344, filed December 2, 1899, issued July 10, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Diamagnetic separation. U.S. Patent 653,345, filed December 2, 1899, issued July 10, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Magnetic separation. U.S. Patent 653, 346, filed December 2, 1900, issued July 10, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Apparatus for making radiographs. U.S. Patent 653,383, filed September 26, 1898, issued July 10, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Apparatus for separating gold from magnetic sands. U.S. Patent 662,409, filed March 19, 1900, issued November 27, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Magnetic separation. U.S. Patent 662,410, filed April 14, 1900, issued November 27, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Magnetic separator. U.S. Patent 662,411, filed April 14, 1900, issued November 27, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Magnetic separator. U.S. Patent 662,412, filed April 14, 1900, issued November 27, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Magnetic separator. U.S. Patent 662,413, filed April 14, 1900, issued November 27, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Rulers. Department of Agriculture Patent Branch 67365, filed [?], and issued May 16, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Magnetic separator. U.S. Patent 662,414, filed July 12, 1900, and issued November 27, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Diamagnetic separation. Department of Agriculture Patent Branch 68576, filed [?], issued August 30, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Electrostatic and combined electrostatic and diamagnetic separation. Department of Agriculture Patent Branch 68577, filed [?], issued August 30, 1900.
    Gates, Elmer. 1900. Separating particles of conducting material from mixtures containing them. Department of Agriculture Patent Branch 69036, filed [?], issued October 16, 1900.
  4 Gates, Elmer. 1903. Production of alloys. U.S. Patent 729,752, filed June 26, 1899, issued June 2, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer 1903. Subacqueous magnetic separator. U.S. Patent 729,753, filed January 10, 1901, and issued November 5, 1902.
Gates, Elmer. 1903. Method of casting alloys. U.S. Patent 729,754, filed January 13, 1903, issued June 2, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Apparatus for casting alloys. U.S. Patent 729,755, filed January 13, 1903, issued June 2, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Alloy casting. U.S. Patent 729,756, filed January 13, 1903, issued June 2, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Diamagnetic separator. U.S. Patent 731,035, filed March 1, 1900, issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Diamagnetic separation. U.S. Patent 731,036, filed March 1, 1900, issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Diamagnetic separator. U.S. Patent 731,037, filed January 13, 1903, issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Diamagnetic separator. U.S. Patent 731,038, filed March 1, 1900, issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Diamagnetic separator. U.S. Patent 731,039, filed March 1, 1900, renewed January 13, 1903, issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Diamagnetic separation. U.S. Patent 731,040, filed March 19, 1900, renewed January 13, 1903, and issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Diamagnetic separator. U.S. Patent 731,041, filed March 19, 1900, renewed January 13, 1903, issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Diamagnetic separation. U.S. Patent 731,042, filed March 19, 1900, renewed January 13, 1903, issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Separating diamagnetic metal from sands. U.S. Patent 731,043, filed April 14, 1900, renewed January 13, 1903, issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Diamagnetic separation. U.S. Patent 731,044, filed April 14, 1900, renewed January 13, 1903, and issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Diamagnetic separator. U.S. Patent 731,045, filed April 14, 1900, renewed January 13, 1903, and issued June 16, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Educational toy or game apparatus. U.S. Patent 741,903, filed January 16, 1903, issued October 20, 1903.
    Gates, Elmer. 1903. Means for electric separation. U.S. Patent 743,710, filed March 25, 1903, issued November 10, 1903.
  5 Gates, Elmer. 1904. Method of extinguishing fires. U.S. Patent 749,374, filed March 13, 1903, issued January 12, 1904.
  6 Gates, Elmer. 1905. Method of agglomerating magnetic ore. U.S. Patent 780,716, filed January 14, 1901, renewed November 5, 1902, issued January 24, 1905.
  7 Gates, Elmer. 1907. Apparatus for separating gold from magnetic sands. U.S. Patent 854,997, filed March 19, 1900, issued May 28, 1907.
    Gates, Elmer. 1912. Method of purifying liquids. U.S. Patent 1,045,830, filed March 6, 1906, renewed May 28, 1908, issued December 3, 1912.
  8 Gates, Elmer. 1925. Method and apparatus for complete combustion. U.S. Patent 1,560,076, filed April 8, 1922, issued November 3, 1925.
  9 Gates, Elmer. 1927. Flatiron. U.S. Patent 1,636,359, filed December 15, 1921, issued July 19, 1927
  10 Gates, Elmer. 1928. Method for combustion under pressure. U.S. Patent 1,664,072, filed April 8, 1922, issued March 27, 1928.
    Subseries 2, United States patent applications, 1896
2 1 Gates, Elmer. 1896. Department of Agriculture Patent Branch 54241, filed [?], issued November 10, 1896.
    Gates, Elmer. 1896. Department of Agriculture Patent Branch 54240, filed [?], issued November 10, 1896.
    Gates, Elmer. 1896. Department of Agriculture Patent Branch 54242, filed [?], issued November 10, 1896.
    Gates, Elmer. 1896. Department of Agriculture Patent Branch 54240, filed [?], issued November 10, 1896.
    Gates, Elmer. 1896. Department of Agriculture Patent Branch 54243, filed [?], issued November 10, 1896.
    Subseries 3, British Patents, 1901
2 11 Gates, Elmer. 1901. A method of and apparatus for the separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials. British Patent 20,544, filed November 14, 1900, issued March 16, 1901.
    SERIES 5, ARTICLES AND CLIPPINGS, 1894-1910, 1923, UNDATED
  12 1894-1901
  13 1902-1910, 1923
  14 Undated
  15 Reference
    SERIES 6, WRITINGS, 1893-1916, 1971, UNDATED
  16 Subseries 1, Articles by Elmer Gates, 1895-1906, undated
  17 Subseries 2, Notes, 1911
  18 Subseries 3, Diary, 1911
  19 Subseries 4, The Concept of Omnicosm (notes), 1893
  20 Subseries 5, "Originality and Invention Applied to Livelihood and Business, published 1981
    Subseries 6, Periodicals, 1896, 1903
3 1 Metaphysical Magazine, 1896
  2 National Magazine, 1903
    Subseries 7, Books, 1905-1916, 1971, undated
  3

Gates, Elmer. The Relations and Development of the Mind and Brain. New York: Theosophical Society, 1904.
Includes articles originally published in Metaphysical Magazine. Included are "The Art of Mind Building," "Old and New Phrenology," and "Psychology and Psychurgy."

  4 Crane, Aaron Martin. Right and Wrong Thinking and their Results. Boston: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., 1905.
Mentions Elmer Gates's work related to thoughts, emotions and brain activity. He is quoted. Pages mentioning Elmer Gates are marked.
4 1 Gates, Elmer. "Immortality from New Standpoints, Pages 319-355 in Proofs of Life After Death. Boston: Small, Maynard & Company, 1908.
  2 Riddell, Newton N. 1916. The Riddell Lectures On Applied Psychology and Vital Christianity. Chicago: The Riddell Publishers, 1916.
Elmer Gates is mentioned in relation to his psychological experiments and ideas.
  3 Gates, Donald. 1971. Elmer Gates and the Art of Mind-Using. New York: Exposition Press, Inc., 1971.
A biography written by Elmer Gates's son, Donald Gates, focusing on Elmer Gates's ideas about psychurgy. After many proposals to publishers were rejected, Donald Gates decided to publish this book himself.
5   Gates, Elmer. The Concept of O, undated.

 

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Last Update: 3 Feb 2009

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